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                              Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able

1. to know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs

2. to know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature.

3. know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs. 4. to carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs

Pharmacognosy is the study of plants or other natural sources as a possible source of drugs. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines Pharmacognosy as “the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources

Pharmacognosy book pdf
Sr.NoName Of BookPDF 
1Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, GokhlaeDownload 
2Text book of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry By Biren Shah & A.K SethDownload 
3C.P Karpe Indian Medicinal PlantDownload 
4Trese and Evans Pharmacognosy PDFDownload 
W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co.,
London, 2009. Pdf Download
Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and
Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988 pdf download
Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers &
Distribution, New Delhi pdf download
Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th Edition,
Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi pdf download
Content Included
Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and
mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins)


Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero
taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements,
growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Edible vaccines
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing
following drugs
Plant Products:
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
Primary metabolites:
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical
Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primarymetabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes : Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Marine Drugs:
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

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